Although the bodies in the Solar System are very closed to the Earth compared to even the closest stars we see at night, many of the planets and satellites we know were discovered fairly recently.
This timeline shows when and by whom the planets and their main satellites were discovered. This visualization was made as an exercise and the data I used is most likely incomplete. The data comes from this Wikipedia page, and from this NASA website.
The live version is here. You can toggle interactivity by hitting the Ctrl key.